Rather than walking or biking to a bus-stop or directly to school, more school-age children are driven to school by their parents, reducing physical activity.
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Abstract To understand the rising prevalence of childhood obesity in affluent societies, it is necessary to take into account the growing obesity infrastructure, which over past decades has developed into an obesogenic environment.
This study examines the effects of one of the constituent factors of consumer societies and a potential contributory factor to childhood obesity: Evaluations of traditional information- and education-based interventions suggest that they may not sustainably change food patterns.
Based on prior consumer research, we propose five hypotheses, which we then test using a subsample from the IDEFICS study, a large-scale pan-European intervention study on childhood obesity.
This finding has important implications for both future research and public policy. Background and Aim of the Study In consumer societies, modern diets based on unhealthy fast foods, convenience foods, energy dense snacks, and soft drinks, the abundance and omnipresence of food, and sedentary lifestyles and electronic recreation that minimises physical activity have led to serious weight control problems.
A particularly severe trend impacting future health levels are the high, and in most countries still rising, levels of overweight and obesity in infants and children [ 1 ]. Globally, the number of overweight children under the age of five was estimated in to be over 42 million; close to 35 million of them living in developing countries.
On an individual level, childhood obesity is strongly associated with risk factors for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, underachievement in school, and lower self-esteem.
In the developed world, obesity is closely connected with low socioeconomic status SES ; that is, membership in groups for whom access to and availability and affordability of healthier food choices and physical activity is particularly limited [ 5 ].
There is also evidence that cumulative exposure to television food advertising—which is higher in lower SES groups—is linked to adult fast-food consumption [ 6 ]. Beyond individual and social problems, rising obesity rates impact healthcare systems and labour markets and also carry environmental costs: Put simply, halting and reversing current childhood obesity trends is not simply an imperative for public health policies but rather is increasingly understood as a broader societal challenge that has become an explicit goal of sustainability strategies worldwide [ 8 ].
As a result, addressing obesity among children and adolescents has become a top public health priority—particularly in the USA, which has one of the highest incidences of obesity worldwide [ 9 ]. Drivers and Impact of Childhood Obesity In light of these challenges, researchers and policy makers have been focusing on the key drivers and barriers for healthy diets and healthy lives in childhood.
Such ecological models, which consider individual behaviour in the context of multiple environments, offer a promising approach to obesity prevention [ 13 — 16 ].
In this paper, we focus on variables from the following three types of environments. Children are embedded in families, neighbourhoods, peer groups, schools, and child care facilities in which others influence their food preferences and practices by transposing their social norms and attitudes, food likes and dislikes, and consumption practices and affect their food habits through exposure and learning processes.
Children are directly exposed to a physical environment that offers or limits opportunities for physical activity e. The media environment and in particular commercial communication e. This present study, although it acknowledges the multitude of influential factors and the interactions within these three environments, focuses on only a few key factors, whose selection was driven by one widely accepted and empirically based assumption: The question, therefore, is not whether food marketing to children works, but how it affects them.
A better understanding of this process is a precondition for developing effective consumer policy tools to protect children from overexposure and imprinting.
Specifically, it draws on data for a subsample of the IDEFICS study [ 19 ], elementary school children aged between 6 to 9 years from five European countries. Because the recent scientific literature offers comprehensive overviews on the state of the art in this field e.The interest in children's eating behaviours and how to change them has been growing in recent years.
This review examines the following questions: What strategies have been used to change children's eating behaviours? Division of Adolescent and School Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion The material in this report originated in the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Ursula E.
Bauer, PhD, Director Corresponding preparer: Sarah M. Lee, PhD. Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content.
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This essay gives an outline of SWOT analysis, what it is and how it helps businesses. It also provide SWOT analysis examples from key business sectors.
This report examines the effects of advertising and commercialism on children and recommends roles for psychologists in assisting parents and schools in .