In the ancient and medieval world, the etymological Latin root religio was understood as an individual virtue of worship, never as doctrine, practice, or actual source of knowledge. What is called ancient religion today, they would have only called "law". For example, the Sanskrit word dharmasometimes translated as "religion", also means law.
Uganda RisingMindset Media, Colonialism, in the traditional sense, ended as European countries started fighting over themselves over the world the World Wars and in effect, weakened themselves in the process allowing the United States and Soviet Union to eventually gain in immense power.
They would spend another 50 years continuing that fight. Colonized people, the world over, saw their chance to break free as they realized that Europe was not invincible or as civilized as they claimed. Britain could no longer hold on to India, for example. In Africa, a sense of local patriotism or nationalism took deeper root among African intellectuals and politicians.
Some of the inspiration for this movement came from the First World War in which European countries had relied on colonial troops for their own defence. Many in Africa realized their own strength with regard to the colonizer for the first time.
At the same time, some of the mystique of the invincible European was shattered by the barbarities of the war. However, in most areas European control remained relatively strong during this period. History of AfricaWikipedia The natural struggle to rebuild is proving difficult Some have commented that pointing to colonialism is not an excuse as many African countries have had decades to try and resolve this.
The implication of the argument is that the effects of centuries of colonialism, in effect, are supposed to be overcome in just a few short years.
Yet, as Richard Robbins, professor of anthropology suggests, if countries like Canada have been struggling with accommodating different groups, then in Africa the problem is more complex: We must remember that the European agreements that had carved up Africa into states paid little attention to cultural and ethnic boundaries and ethnic groups had little opportunity or need to form political alliances or accommodations under repressive colonial rule.
Consider the extent to which he Second World War of just 6 years duration has pervaded the consciousness of our developed world for 2 generations and imagine how 4 centuries of enslavement might have seized the entire social and cultural ethos of an undeveloped continent.
Rebuilding from decades and centuries of this has been a tough struggle. Consider the following from a speech by Bob Gelfdof: To establish a type of nationwide government, [European] colonial administrators effectively set about inventing African traditions for Africa, that would make the process more acceptable to the indigenous population.
The most far-reaching inventions of tradition in colonial Africa occurred when the administrators believed they were respecting age old African custom whereas a commentator notes What were called customary law, customary land-rights, customary political structure and so on were in fact all invented by colonial codification.
By creating an image of Africa steeped in unchanging tradition the colonizers condemned the continent to live in a reconstructed moment of its past. A vast continental theme park — Africa-land, that hindered development for decades.
But perhaps the most pernicious of the traditions which the colonial period bequeathed to Africa was the notion of Tribalism. Just as every European belonged to a nation, every African must belong to a tribe, a cultural unit with a common language, a single social system and established customary law.
In Zambia the chief of a little known group once remarked, My people were not Soli until when the Bwana D. The concept of the Zulu as a discrete ethnic group did not emerge until These were the dangerous sands upon which the colonialists imposed a new political geography.
However once in motion, the process was enthusiastically reinforced by the Africans themselves. Tribes became the object of passionate African imagination.
Some chroniclers have endowed their tribes with a retrospective primordial essence. Rather like Yeats did with the similarly disenfranchised Irish. The British ruled through these local hierarchies, a process which unconsciously promoted the most malleable, collaborative or corrupt local chiefs and where none existed, as we've seen, they simply created one, enabling ambitious individuals and groups to achieve positions of status, dominance, and wealth that might otherwise have been unattainable.
To counter this tribalism some African leaders proclaimed the single party state to be the only means to control the excessive, ethnically based competition for the global goods of modernity — education, health, and the eradication of poverty.
Competitive democracy they said would only lead to penury. Yet one-party rule unrestrained by the moral check of shared community had the same result. It proved to be a mask for oppression, ethnocracy and kleptocracy.
Of the African leaders overthrown between and two-thirds were murdered, jailed or slung into exile. Up until 59 African leaders were toppled or assassinated. Only three retired peacefully and not one was voted out of office.
No incumbent African leader ever lost an election until Bob Geldof, Why Africa?Introduction to Sociology. Concerts, sports games, and political rallies can have very large crowds.
When you attend one of these events, you may know only the people you came with. Conflicts: Introduction to the Free Speech Clause As Watergate, Irangate, Clintongate (and all the other "gates") demonstrate, freedom of the press enables citizens to learn about abuses of power--and then do something about the abuse at the ballot box, if .
This paper, coauthored with James S. Simkin in , was the Gestalt Therapy chapter in the edition of Corsini and Wedding's Current Psychotherapies (4th Edition).
It appears here with the kind permission of the publisher, F.E. Peacock, Publishers, Inc. of Itasca, Illinois.
Conflicts. With every law there are problems, including Freedom of the Press. Even though the united states had the freedom to write what we want, there were still restrictions.
We had the freedom to write our own thoughts and opinions, but if it was scandalous, seditious, or talked down upon public figures, punishment was expected. Freedom of the press, which was relatively vigorous before , has been extinguished, and independent voices have been arrested or forced into exile.
Property rights are routinely ignored, and expropriation is used as a blunt instrument against those who oppose the new order.
Geoffrey Wawro, Warfare And Society In Europe p, Routledge (London, ). All these issues must be considered in this course. And yet, it is the firm belief of the author that the underlying principles developed for some hundreds of years to control, regulate and ameliorate the frightfulness of war, are just as applicable in the post-9/11 world.