Instead we regard it as something that just happens to us. But learning must itself consist of sets of skills we grow ourselves; we start with only some of them and slowly grow the rest.
Presented as archival content. Unlike most articles on Britannica. Rather, they are presented on the site as archival content, intended for historical reference only. In researchers made numerous discoveries concerning the prevalence, Neuropathology, and treatment of autism spectrum conditions also known as autism spectrum disorders.
Indeed, new estimates of prevalence in both the United States and the United Kingdom indicated that roughly 1 in every children was diagnosed with one of these conditions. Autism is a spectrum condition—it is manifested to varying degrees of severity.
At one extreme a person may have no social skills, no language skills, and major learning difficulties. At the other extreme the individual may have average or even above-average IQ and precocious vocabulary but odd social skills e.
The former would receive a diagnosis of classic autism. The latter would receive a diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Both of these are subgroups on the autistic spectrum, and those living with either condition share a strong preference for routines and repetition and are characterized by an obsessional interest in highly specific topics.
In a one-on-one session, a therapist works with a five-year-old boy with autism to improve his cognitive skills. During their sessions the therapist subtly switches between play and learning. In the late s the prevalence of autism spectrum conditions was found to have increased substantially relative to previous decades, and data published in revealed that the number of children diagnosed with these conditions was continuing to follow this same trend.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, stated that in between 1 in 80 and 1 in U. The study assessed the prevalence of these conditions in eight-year-olds, since this represented the age by which most affected U.
A similar prevalence estimate, about 1 in children, had been reported previously in the United Kingdom. This figure was also representative of an increase in the number of persons diagnosed with autism spectrum conditions, relative to previous decades in the United Kingdom.
Information on the incidence of autism spectrum disorders in other countries remained controversial. A study published early in in the Israel Medical Association Journal addressed the incidence of autism spectrum disorders in that country. The study, which represented the first comprehensive analysis of autistic disorders performed in Israel, reported that the incidence of the conditions had increased from 2 diagnosed cases in to in These figures were further assessed in terms of the total number of children under age 18 who lived in the country during the time period investigated.
Thus, the per capita prevalence of autism spectrum disorders in Israel in was estimated to have been 1. A group of researchers from the Sheba Medical Center near Tel Aviv later wrote to the journal claiming that the reported figures were underestimates.
The group stated that for children born in Israel between andthe prevalence of autism spectrum disorders was about 36 per 10, placing the incidence of the conditions in the country closer to estimates of worldwide incidence reported in a study published in in the journal Lancet.
The Israel figure cited by the group at Sheba Medical Center had not yet been published in a peer-reviewed journal and was based on data that the researchers had obtained from the Israel Ministry of Social Affairs.
One of the most distinguishing characteristics of people affected by autism spectrum conditions is atypical behaviour. Such behaviour has been associated with two primary psychological aspects, empathy and systemizing.
Children and adults with Asperger syndrome show their empathizing difficulties on tests of emotion recognition, theory of mind, and spontaneous empathy. Theory of mind is the ability to attribute mental states to oneself or others and is regarded as the cognitive component of empathy.
Emotion recognition is sometimes regarded as part of theory of mind because emotions are mental states. Often emotion-recognition deficits appear only if complex emotions are tested, though in some individuals with autism, the deficit is evident even when basic emotions are tested.
Systemizing is the drive to analyze a system in terms of underlying rules in order to understand and predict its behaviour.barnweddingvt.com – Online dictionary and encyclopedia with pictures, facts, and videos.
Get information and homework help with millions of articles in our FREE, online library. “Encyclopedia of Autism Spectrum Disorders serves as a vast summation of recent research, findings, and developments in the area of autism and has potential for being a widely used resource among researchers, parents, and practitioners.
a resource that will be valued for decades to come. an extremely valuable contribution to the. The Ultimate Guide to Citing Anything in Chicago Style Example: One would wonder, "Would young Einstein be characterized as belonging somewhere on the autism spectrum?
Would Erdos have been given a diagnosis of A.D.H.D.?" ¹ Footnote (placed at the bottom of the page) 1. Encyclopedia Britannica, In the bibliography: Gover, Emily. Autism is a spectrum condition—it is manifested to varying degrees of severity.
At one extreme a person may have no social skills, no language skills, and major learning difficulties. At one extreme a person may have no social skills, no language skills, and major learning difficulties. She specializes in language learning and best-practices in early intervention for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and related social-thinking disorders as well as in assessing and providing intervention for social communication and social emotional learning.
The Encyclopedia Britannica online, 01/ Autism, primary contributor: Gene Blatt. Genn Blatt contributed to the Encyclopedia Britannica online to which gives the definition of Autism, also called classic autism or autistic disorder.