Contraceptive research paper

There are a variety of methods available in accordance to its nature of use. Some methods provide short term birth control facility whereas some other provides permanent or long term birth control facility. The following paper discusses some of the most popular

Contraceptive research paper

Gabelnick First published online: November 1, DOI: The search for a choice that satisfies all three objectives presents significant challenges for women and men throughout the world.

Furthermore, what constitutes an ideal or suitable contraceptive method differs not only among individuals but also as individuals enter different life phases: A method that works for a sexually active teenager who has had several partners, for example, may not continue to meet her needs as she becomes a monogamous career woman.

Therefore, it is important for women and men to have a wide variety of contraceptive options, which will allow them to maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of contraceptive use as their needs change.

To achieve the family size she desires, a fertile woman today must practice birth control throughout most of her potential reproductive years—as many as 30 of the roughly 36 years between menarche and menopause.

While many women are motivated to avoid unwanted pregnancy, difficulties in using methods consistently, varying side effects and Contraceptive research paper wide range of failure rates may create obstacles to contraceptive use.

For example, many women find it challenging to take a pill every day, and some find it a nuisance to use a chemical or mechanical barrier method at every act of intercourse.

Current Contraceptive Research | Guttmacher Institute

Cost may deter some women from using effective methods: Women in many developing countries face additional obstacles, including cultural biases against certain methods and limited supplies.

The need for new pregnancy prevention options that improve on Contraceptive research paper available methods also has important public health dimensions: Although research on and development of novel contraceptives have failed to keep pace with the growing need for a variety of safe, effective and acceptable methods, ongoing investigation holds out the promise of a number of new options.

These include chemical and mechanical barrier methods, hormonal methods, male contraception, trans-cervical sterilization and immunocontraceptives. An ideal product would be female-controlled, with minimal systemic exposure and adverse effects, and would have the ability to coat the vagina, cover the cervix and be retained for an extended period of time.

The development of such products is of urgent need and has been the focus of a great deal of research activity for the last decade. Initially, expectations for existing over-the-counter spermicides containing nonoxynol-9 were great.

However, studies showing that nonoxynol-9 products may cause irritation of the cervix and vagina, which may form gateways for increased transmission of HIV, have generated concern about these products. Many novel compounds that have antifertility and possible antimicrobial effects are currently being developed and tested.

However, substantial challenges remain before a new contraceptive microbicide product will be available for distribution. Two contraceptive microbicides, PRO and cellulose sulfate, are far along in the pipeline.

These work by inhibiting sperm function and the attachment of pathogens to target epithelial cells.

Contraceptive research paper

Preclinical studies of PROunder development by Indevus formerly Interneuron Pharmaceuticals, have shown that it is effective as a contraceptive in rabbits and is active against HIV, herpes simplex virus, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The gel was found to be well tolerated in phase I trials.

By contrast, nonoxynol-9, which destroys target cells, can also harm the cells that line the vagina and cervix. Results of a phase I single- and multiple-exposure tolerance study suggested that cellulose sulfate gel is as safe as the marketed nonoxynol-9 product Conceptrol and the inactive control K-Y Jelly; the findings also suggested that the new product may be associated with less genital irritation.

BufferGel and ACIDFORM gel, which work by maintaining the natural protective acidity of the vagina, show particular promise as both antifertility and antimicrobial agents, while Lactobacillus products have potential primarily as antimicrobial agents.

Lactobacillus crispatus capsules manufactured by The Medicine Company may recolonize the vagina with hydrogen peroxide, producing Lactobacillus, which helps keep the vagina free of infection.

BufferGel, developed by ReProtect, achieves its protective effect by acidifying semen. It was found to be effective, safe and well tolerated in 27 U.

Although it is in early clinical testing, comparative in vitro studies have shown that it has greater acid-buffering capability than BufferGel. After 14 days of use, fewer women using preparations containing 0. The development of a noncontraceptive microbide would give individuals an option to protect themselves against STIs while attempting conception.

The leading noncontraceptive microbicide, under development by the Population Council, is Carraguard, a seaweed extract that inhibits the attachment of the pathogen to target mucosal cells. Carraguard is a large molecule, which appears to coat both the pathogen and the vagina; in vitro and animal studies suggest that it blocks infection with HIV, herpes simplex virus type 2, human papillomavirus and Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

Data from a randomized, placebo- controlled double-blind safety trial in South Africa and Thailand are currently being analyzed; 16 a phase III trial is planned to begin in Several new mechanical barrier methods are being designed to improve over the standard latex diaphragm, which Margaret Sanger introduced in the United States in Each has unique features, but they share a number of important elements:The free Contraception research paper (Human Sexuality and Contraception essay) presented on this page should not be viewed as a sample of our on-line writing service.

If you need fresh and competent research / writing on Contraception, use the professional writing service offered by our company. Research interests have focused on the development of new delivery systems and extended dosing of hormonal contraceptives that increase choice and improve compliance, but a truly radically different method has not evolved.

Sep 08,  · There are many different types of contraception, but not all types are appropriate for all situations. The most appropriate method of birth control depends on an individual's overall health, age, frequency of sexual activity, number of sexual partners, desire to have children in the future, and.

Kaiser Permanente (KP) became involved in oral contraceptives in the mids and has been actively involved in research on hormonal contraceptives since the late s.

This review describes the historical background of KP initial research on oral contraceptive safety and the contributions of KP research on hormonal contraception in the subsequent four decades.

Birth control, also known as contraception, is designed to prevent pregnancy. Birth control methods may work in a number of different ways: Preventing sperm from getting to the eggs.

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Types include condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and contraceptive sponges. Keeping the woman's ovaries from releasing eggs that could be fertilized. Contraception essays / Sexuality Research The article, "Adolescent Sexuality, Pregnancy, and Parenthood", was about peoples attitudes and behaviors on sex.

There was a survey done of students from 20 schools in Missouri indicated they had not has sex.

Contraceptive Research, Introduction, and Use: Lessons From Norplant | The National Academies Press