However, the beginnings of anything resembling a professional market for writing in English would not be realized until the s with the founding of other newspapers and magazines like the Philippines Herald inthe Philippine Education Magazine in renamed Philippine Magazine inand later the Manila Tribune, the Graphic, Woman's Outlook, and Woman's Home Journal. Cash incentives were given to writers in when the Free Press started to pay for published contributions and awarded P1, for the best stories. The organization in of the Philippine Writers Association and in of the University of the Philippines National Writers Workshop, which put out the Literary Apprentice, also helped encourage literary production.
In the latter half of the 20th century, much work was done to recover and study pre-Columbian literature, including that part of it created in the aftermath of the European invasion. These romances narrative poems with eight-syllable lineswhich harkened back to the Middle Ages, continued to be composed and sung in all areas where the Spaniards settled.
More sophisticated poetry, following Italian Renaissance metres and themes, began to be written shortly thereafter in the capitals of the viceroyalties or vice-kingdoms of Mexico and Peru. These cities became the centres of European culture in America.
Because the viceregal capitals were organized like European courts, literary activity thrived there throughout the colonial period. There were poetic contests, theatre, public recitations, and literary gatherings like those of the academies and universities of Europe.
With the development of the printing press in the 15th century, the Spanish empire depended more and more on the written word. For learning purposes, large numbers of cartillas, or alphabet cards, were shipped from Spain.
The earliest literary activity Although there must have been some early stirrings in Hispaniola, literary activity in the Western sense that is, written forms that had a conscious literary purpose and employed an alphabetic language began with the Hispanicization of Mexico City.
The former Aztec capital was already a major metropolis when the Spaniards took over, and they strove earnestly to compete with the institutions of the vanquished, particularly in religion but also in theatre, poetry, and all forms of oral literature.
Mexico City soon became a cultural centre, with poets, many of them born in Spainwho were attuned to every trend back in Europe. The first Mexican-born poet to attain renown was Francisco de Terrazas, who composed fine sonnets in the Petrarchan style, probably during the last half of the 16th century.
The epic form proved to be the most important manifestation of Renaissance-style poetry in the first century of the colonial period. The young soldier and courtier began the poem while engaged in campaigns against the Araucanian Indians of what is today Chile. While the poem has been praised for the authenticity lent by the fact that the poet was a participant in the wars he describes, and also for the very positive portrayal of the Araucanians, its deepest value lies in the poetic genius Ercilla brought to it.
He was a powerful and refined poet, the supreme master of the eight-line octava real stanza in the Spanish languageand he had a great sense of the dramatic.
He has never achieved the popularity of Ercilla, however. Written in Cuba by the Canarian Silvestre de Balboa y Troya de Quesada, it is about the defeat of a French pirate who abducts a local ecclesiastic for ransom, and it reflects anti-Protestant fervour in the Spanish empire.
Chronicles of discovery and conquest Yet what has been commonly considered, retrospectively, the most important 16th-century writing in the Americas is the chronicles of the discovery and conquest of the New World.
This group of documents includes narrative accounts, legal documents depositions, reports, arguments, etc. In spite of these often attractive flaws, his accounts constitute a substantial legacy in the discourse of the West. Whereas Columbus was a navigator who could write a little, Peter Martyr was steeped in culture; during the 16th century his elegant Latin tract enjoyed a wide readership all over Europe.
While the discovery of the Caribbean was an astonishing event to Europeans, the discovery of Mexico was dazzling. Here were hitherto unknown civilizations that not only were populous and spread over vast territories but also had splendid cities and complex forms of government, arts, crafts, and religious practices.
He described battles but also customs, costumes, rituals, and the elaborate protocol of the Aztec court.
It is an invaluable source of information on both the common lives of the soldiers and the customs of the natives they defeated. While not literary in the formal sense of Renaissance poetics, the Historia verdadera is literature in a modern sense in that it places authenticity above all rules of style or decorum.
Of all the books to have come out of colonial Latin Americahis is the one still most read. Originally a Spanish settler, Las Casas was appalled at the treatment of the Indians by the rapacious Spaniards. In Las Casas also commenced the Historia de las Indias selections appear in History of the Indiesa voluminous history of the conquest of the New World.
It did, probably beyond his expectations. Written in a dramatic style and perhaps exaggerating the atrocities perpetrated on the Indians, it was both a polemic and an appeal. He remained a controversial figure in Spain until the 20th century. Historians of the New World By the turn of the 17th century, most of the conquest of America had been accomplished, and historians, some appointed by the Spanish crown, attempted to provide a comprehensive overview of the event.
The most significant among these new writers, however, was Garcilaso de la Vega, El Incathe son of a Spanish conquistador and an Inca woman of noble lineage. Because of his combined heritage, Garcilaso, who was born in Peru but spent most of his adult life in Spain, is commonly considered to be the first truly Latin American writer.
The Comentarios reales tells the history of the Inca empire, providing a detailed description of all aspects of Inca culture. He gives a dramatic account that combines autobiography, ethnography, and history, all cast in an elegant and precise prose style.
Garcilaso is the most prominent of the native historians of the conquest because his book is of such a high literary quality and also because of his mixed heritage.Education in the Philippines is provided by public and private schools, colleges, universities, and technical and vocational barnweddingvt.comg for public education comes from the national government..
At the basic education level, the Department of Education (DepEd) sets overall educational standards and mandates standardized tests for the K–12 basic education system, although private.
Philippine literature is the literature associated with the Philippines and includes the legends of prehistory, and the colonial legacy of the Philippines. Most of the notable literature of the Philippines was written during the Spanish period and the first half of the 20th century in Spanish language.
We will write a custom essay sample on. Latin American literature, the national literatures of the Spanish-speaking countries of the Western barnweddingvt.comically, it also includes the literary expression of the highly developed American Indian civilizations conquered by the Spaniards.
Over the years, Latin American literature has developed a rich and complex diversity of themes, forms, creative idioms, and styles. Philippine Government in Pre Spanish Period Words Jul 24th, 18 Pages Education in the Philippines changed radically, and was before patterned from both of educational systems of Spain and the United States.
Philippine literature in English has its roots in the efforts of the United States, then engaged in a war with Filipino nationalist forces at the end of the 19th century.
By , public education was institutionalized in the Philippines, with English serving as the medium of barnweddingvt.com year, around educators in the S.S.
Thomas (the "Thomasites") were tasked to replace the soldiers. The Right to Education - Education is a elemental human right and essential for all other human rights. It is a powerful tool by which socially and economically marginalized children and adults can lift themselves out of poverty.