This allows students to focus on the process and techniques of investigation and the subsequent reporting. However, in Year 12 students are often given freedom to choose a topic or research question from the work covered over the whole of the course.
Brix is primarily used in fruit juice, wine makingcarbonated beverage industry, starch and the sugar industry. Plato is primarily used in brewing. Balling appears on older saccharimeters and is still used in the South African wine industry and in some breweries. Oechsle as direct reading for the sugar content is primary used in wine making in GermanySwitzerland and Luxembourg.
Brix is used in the food industry for measuring the approximate amount of sugars in fruitsvegetablesjuices, winesoft drinks and in the starch and sugar manufacturing industry.
Different countries use the scales in different industries: For fruit juices, 1. This usually correlates well with perceived sweetness. Modern optical Brix meters are divided into two categories. In the first are the Abbe-based instruments in which a drop of the sample solution is placed on a prism; the result is observed through an eyepiece.
The critical angle the angle beyond which light is totally reflected back into the sample is a function of the refractive index and the operator detects this critical angle by noting where a dark-bright boundary falls on an engraved scale.
The scale can be calibrated in Brix or refractive index. These instruments are available in bench and handheld versions. Digital refractometers also find the critical angle, but the light path is entirely internal to the prism.
A drop of sample is placed on its surface, so the critical light beam never penetrates the sample. This makes it easier to read turbid samples.
These meters are also available in bench top laboratory and portable pocket versions. This ability to easily measure Brix in the field makes it possible to determine ideal harvesting times of fruit and vegetables so that products arrive at the consumers in a perfect state or are ideal for subsequent processing steps such as vinification.
Refractometers are still commonly used for fruit juice. This is seldom the case. Grape juice mustfor example, contains little sucrose but does contain glucose, fructose, acids, and other substances. For example, an Where it is desirable to know the actual dry solids content, empirical correction formulas can be developed based on calibrations with solutions similar to those being tested.
For example, in sugar refining, dissolved solids can be accurately estimated from refractive index measurement corrected by an optical rotation polarization measurement.
Alcohol has a higher refractive index 1. As a consequence, a refractometer measurement made on a sugar solution once fermentation has begun will result in a reading substantially higher than the actual solids content.
Thus, an operator must be certain that the sample they are testing has not begun to ferment.A weak experimental report that lacks the depth required to gain good marks in an A level course.
Although some results were obtained the key sections were either missing or lacking in key details. Before we get to the actual results, we can already identify a problem with the data.
Only 6 studies were selected in the literature review. These studies differed in the rate of weight loss, the body fat percentage of the subjects, the training the subjects did, how muscular the subjects were and how much protein they consumed.
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