Put not your trust in Princes. However, both of these views are based on a misconception. Jesus can be a tragic victim of wrong without Caiaphas having been a bad person or done the wrong thing, let alone an anti-Semitic caricature. Caiaphas was in fact doing his duty, as we must construe the duty of a statesman, as opposed to the duty of a private person.
Work not for a reward; but never cease to do thy work. The Bhagavad Gita2: We cannot be held responsible beyond our strength and means, since the resulting events are quite outside of our control and, in fact, we have power over nothing except our will; which is the basis upon which all rules concerning man's duty must of necessity be founded.
Michel de Montaigne, Essays, "That our actions should be judged by our intentions," I: Cohen, Penguin, p.
The State of Nature has a Law of Nature to govern it, which obliges every one: And Reason, which is that Law, teaches all Mankind, who will but consult it, that being all equal and independent, no one ought to harm another in his Life, Health, Liberty, or Possessions.
Hobbes characterizes his completely empirical way of thinking very remarkably by the fact that, in his book De Principiis Geometrarum, he denies the whole of really pure mathematics, and obstinately asserts that the point has extension and the line breadth.
Yet we cannot show him a point without extension or a line without breadth; hence we can just as little explain to him the a priori nature of mathematics as the a priori nature of right, because he pays no heed to any knowledge that is not empirical. But as soon as one wants to extend this principle, to make it the basic principle of society [Grundprincip der Gesellschaft], it shows itself for what it is: But guns he had seen, in the hands of men on Mars, and the expression of Jill's face at having one aimed at her he did not like.
He grokked that this was one of the critical cusps in the growth of a being wherein contemplation must bring forth right action in order to permit further growth. You see everything in black and white!
Jack Ryan [Harrison Ford]: Not black and white Ritter, right and wrong! Clear and Present Danger [Paramount Pictures, ] Ethical goods are goods in relation to persons -- goods for persons. There are multiple persons, and these are divided generally into self and others.
Ethical goods thus fall into two categories: All ethical goods are autonomously defined by selves i. The pursuit of goods for the self is self-interest, and in general it is no moral duty, only prudence, to pursue one's own self-interest. Thomas Jefferson, in a letter fromexpresses this nicely: But I consider our relations with others as constituting the boundaries of morality To ourselves, in strict language, we can owe no duties, obligation requiring also two parties.
Self-love, therefore, is no part of morality. Indeed it is exactly its counterpart. It is the sole antagonist of virtue, leading us constantly by our propensities to self-gratification in violation of our moral duties to others.
By contrast, we find Immanuel Kant saying, " However, preserving one's own life is not a duty. It is a good, but a non-moral good. Non-moral goods are matters of ethical hortatives rather than imperatives, as explained in relation to the polynomic theory of value.
Kant is probably under the impression that self-preservation is a duty, and so suicide a sin, because of Christian ethics, not because of the eternal forms of reason to which he appeals. Greek and Roman moralists rather admired certain kinds of suicide.
But they were pagans. Even Dante excuses the suicide of virtuous pagans, such as Cato the Younger. If suicide were morally wrongful, the only effective sanction against it would be of the sort threatened by Christianity: Punishment, however, only provides a prudential, not a moral, motive for goodness, as Kant well understood himself.
The character of the action itself must be wrongful and the moral duty unconditioned. Yet is Kant himself going to require the hero to preserve his own life when its sacrifice might save his honor, his fellows, or his Nation?
Did Jesus have a duty to preserve his life when its Sacrifice would Save mankind?Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct.
The field of ethics, along with aesthetics, concern matters of value, and thus comprise the branch of philosophy called axiology.. Ethics seeks to resolve questions of human morality by defining concepts such as good and evil, right and wrong.
Essay Version Click-Tap "CONTENTS" at the top to see the table of contents for this essay. A Socratic View of Wrongdoing. Morality is a term that refers to our adherence to rules that govern human behavior on the basis of some idea of right and wrong. Although the terms moral and ethical are often interchanged, in this essay I restrict my use of the terms ethics/ethical to refer to our.
The Moral Accounting Schemes. The general metaphor of Moral Accounting is realized in a small number of basic moral schemes: Reciprocation, Retribution, Restitution, Revenge, Altruism, etc.
Each of these moral schemes is defined using the metaphor of Moral Accounting, but the schemes differ as how they use this metaphor, that is, they differ as to their inherent logics. 1. Aims and Methods of Moral Philosophy. The most basic aim of moral philosophy, and so also of the Groundwork, is, in Kant’s view, to “seek out” the foundational principle of a “metaphysics of morals,” which Kant understands as a system of a priori moral principles that apply the CI to human persons in all times and cultures.
Kant pursues this project through the first two chapters. The history of Western ethics Ancient civilizations to the end of the 19th century The ancient Middle East and Asia. The first ethical precepts must have been passed down by word of mouth from parents and elders, but as societies learned to use the written word, they began to set down their ethical beliefs.
These records constitute the first historical evidence of the origins of ethics. Virtue ethics is currently one of three major approaches in normative ethics. It may, initially, be identified as the one that emphasizes the virtues, or moral character, in contrast to the approach that emphasizes duties or rules (deontology) or that emphasizes the consequences of actions (consequentialism).