Oxford University Press,
Definition[ edit ] The ancestry and identity of Melungeons has been a highly controversial subject. They might accurately be described as a loose collection of families of diverse origins who migrated, settled near each other, and intermarried, mostly in Hancock and Hawkins counties in Tennesseenearby areas of Kentuckyand in Lee County, Virginia.
They were largely endogamousmarrying primarily within their community until about Melungeons have been defined as having multiracial ancestry.
They did not exhibit characteristics that could be classified as those of a single racial phenotype.
Most modern-day descendants of Appalachian families traditionally regarded as Melungeon are generally European American in appearance, often though not always with dark hair and eyes, and a swarthy or olive complexion. During the nineteenth century, free people of color sometimes identified as Portuguese or Native American in order to avoid being classified as black in the segregated slave societies.
They have tended to "marry white" since before the twentieth century. Contemporary authors identify differing lists of surnames to be included as families associated with Melungeons. The English surname Gibson and Irish surname Collins appear frequently; genealogist Pat Elder calls them "core" surnames.
From about the midth to the late 20th centuries, it referred exclusively to one tri-racial isolate group, the descendants of the multiracial Collins, Gibson, and several other related families at Newman's Ridge, Vardy Valley, and other settlements in and around Hancock and Hawkins counties, Tennessee.
This meant the children of African slave mothers were born into slavery. But it also meant the children of free white or mulatto women, even if fathered by enslaved African men, were born free. The free descendants of such unions formed many of the oldest free families of color.
Early colonial Virginia was very much a "melting pot" of peoples, and some of these early multiracial families were ancestors of the later Melungeons. Each family line has to be traced separately.
Over the generations, most individuals of the group called Melungeon were persons of mixed European and African descent, whose ancestors had been free in colonial Virginia.
These conclusions have been largely upheld in subsequent scholarly and genealogical studies. Inthe U. Inthe genealogist Roberta Estes and her fellow researchers reported that the Melungeon lines likely originated in the unions of black and white indentured servants living in Virginia in the mids before slavery became widespread.
They migrated together from western Virginia through the Piedmont frontier of North Carolinabefore settling primarily in the mountains of East Tennessee. For instance, the Collins, Gibson, and Ridley Riddle families owned land adjacent to one another in Orange County, North Carolinawhere they and the Bunch family were listed in as "free Molatas mulattoes ", subject to taxation on tithes.JSTOR is part of ITHAKA, a not-for-profit organization helping the academic community use digital technologies to preserve the scholarly record and to advance research and teaching in sustainable ways.
Asian American groups have made similar types of arguments in past and current complaints alleging discriminatory admissions policies. Due to the inherent difficulty of proving racial discrimination, their arguments rely heavily on statistical evidence.
A word to the wise for non-Indians responsive web design resume in search of Native American religions and spirituality. Native American boarding schools, also known as Indian Residential Schools were established in the United States native american culture and traditions essay during the late 19th and mid 20th centuries with a.
21st Century Skills Early Learning Framework The 21st Century Skills Early Learning Framework and Guide offer a practical tool for practitioners and advocates to integrate 21st century skills into .
and argument in the cultures of native English speakers. Some scholars (Hu, ; Jia, ; Scollon & Scollon, ) claim that Asians favor the inductive style that usually delays the introduction of topics till the end and in contrast to that, native English speakers prefer to introduce topics at the beginning or place their main point early.
Native American Culture Essay Examples. 37 total results. The Book Black Elk Speaks in s by John G. Neihardt. 1, words. 3 pages. A Study of the Culture of the Native Americans.
1, words. Native American Culture and Symbolism in The Red Convertible by Louise Erdrich. words. 2 pages.