Antisocial personality disorder Definition Also known as psychopathy, sociopathy or dyssocial personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder APD is a diagnosis applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the rights, safety or feelings of others.
Physical punishment is part of our puritan heritage. Even the most kind-hearted of people, when influenced by this dogmatic set of beliefs, have been known to say something like the following: In my day they would have gotten a good beating. That would have straightened them up.
These days even though physical punishment is not used and can no longer be used in most schools in the western world, this ingrained set of beliefs tends to ensure that many people parents teachers and administrators still feel there was something very good about physical punishment that has been lost.
They point to bad behavior of children today and assume that not only did this not happen in the past, but it did not because Punishment of unethical behavior where physically punished. They assume that lack of punishment is what causes, as they say, kids today to run wild, and that the reintroduction of physical punishment would fix the problem.
In the following we will show that punishment, and especially physical punishment, is ineffective in changing bad behavior to good behavior, and actually destructive in encouraging good morals. Aggression and antisocial behavior. Antisocial behavior often comes about as part of aggression which is our primitive mechanism for dealing with perceived threats.
To be part of a society we have to learn to inhibit aggression in circumstances where it is inappropriate.
All antisocial behavior has to be dealt with in this way, but aggression is the emotional core that drives antisocial behavior. Society has two mechanisms for dealing with anti social or aggressive behavior. On the one hand there is socialization, where the young of our species internalizes the correct way for them to conduct themselves in society and then act that way, because that is what they want to do.
On the other hand there is the law or the rules that society sets down and punishes those that disobey those laws or rules.
It is this punishment that is in question.
While in the past few have disputed that the threat of punishment tends to lower the likelihood of people committing crimes, performing antisocial activities, and being aggressive this is largely an untested theory.
However, since the time science first started looking at the effects of punishment scientists have not been able to find much evidence that this theory is correct. Indeed it has been shown that punishment and especially severe punishment is counterproductive and can increase antisocial and aggressive behaviors.
Elliot Aronson in his book "The Social Animal" presents the current state of consensus among social scientists concerning punishment: If one man robs, batters of kills another, the simple solution is to put him in prison or, in extreme cases to kill him. If a young girl aggresses against her parents, siblings, or peers, we can spank her, scream at her, remove her privileges, or make her feel guilty.
The assumption here is that this punishment "will teach them a lesson," that they will think twice before they perform that activity again, and that the more severe the punishment, the better.
But it is not that simple. Severe punishment has been shown to be effective temporarily, but unless used with extreme caution, it can have the opposite effect in the long run.
Why do we feel the need to punish, if, as I assert, this is so ineffective? Social scientists as a group do not endorse punishment or think it effective, even the behaviorists such as Skinner agree. The answer lies in the fact that humans are only partly logical.
It is possible, as the behaviorist also point out, for our behavior to be directed by reward contingencies that arise from our own social circumstances. The one problem is, if one grows up in a family of harsh physical punishment, that person will tend to adopt this behavior when they want to control a situation or people.This experiment investigated how punishment of varying severity (no punishment, appropriate punishment, and harsh punishment) in response to unethical organizational behavior influenced observers' outcome expectancies, justice evaluations, and emotional responses.
The type of punishment was related to the protagonist's academic status and the nature of the unethical behavior. IRs proposed more and different punishments than did scientists.
CONCLUSION: Scientists and IRs proposed that most unethical research behaviors be punished. Also known as psychopathy, sociopathy or dyssocial personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder (APD) is a diagnosis applied to persons who routinely behave with little or no regard for the rights, safety or feelings of others.
This pattern of behavior is seen in children or young adolescents and persists into adulthood. Dog Behavior and Etiquette: Yes, No, Maybe, Do's and Don't's. By Marc Bekoff Ph.D.
on November 18, in Animal Emotions. Answers to questions about why dogs do what they do and if they should. Although some children dream of running away to join the circus, it is a safe bet that most animals forced to perform in circuses dream of running away from the circus.
Colorful pageantry disguises the fact that animals used in circuses are captives who are forced—under threat of punishment—to. The sad truth is that almost every company has individuals that partake in unethical behaviour for their personal benefit or supported by the company.
Unethical behaviour might be as simple as using company property and time for personal benefit to inside trading and financial fraud.