Law enforcement struggles to act as a prophylaxis to crime. Transportation plays an important role in a community both socially and economically. Communities depend on mass transit via railroads, airlines, ports and canals to transport their assets:
Exclusive Economic Zone extends nautical miles seaward from the coasts, spanning an area about 1. This vast region is host to a rich diversity of marine plants and animals and a wide range of ecosystems, from tropical coral reefs to Arctic waters covered with sea ice.
More than million people live in the coastal watershed counties of the United States, and population in this zone is expected to grow in the future. The oceans help regulate climate, absorb carbon dioxide an important greenhouse, or heat-trapping, gasand strongly influence weather patterns far into the continental interior.
Ocean issues touch all of us in both direct and indirect ways. Some climate trends, such as rising seawater temperatures and ocean acidification, are common across much of the coastal areas and open ocean worldwide.
The biological responses to climate change often vary from region to region, depending on the different combinations of species, habitats, and other attributes of local systems.
Data records for the ocean are often shorter and less complete than those on land, and for many biological variables it is still difficult to discern long-term ocean trends from natural variability.
Rising Ocean Temperatures The rise in ocean temperature over the last century will persist into the future, with continued large impacts on climate, ocean circulation, chemistry, and ecosystems. Technical Input to the National Climate Assessment.
The chapter author team engaged in multiple technical discussions via teleconferences that permitted a careful review of the foundational TIR 1 and of approximately 25 additional technical inputs provided by the public, as well as the other published literature, and professional judgment.
The chapter author team met at Conservation International in Arlington, VA on May for expert deliberation of draft key messages by the authors, wherein each message was defended before the entire author team before the key message was selected for inclusion in the report.
Relevant and recent peer-reviewed publications, 23456 including many others that are cited therein, describe evidence that ocean temperature has risen over the past century. This evidence base includes direct and indirect temperature measurements, paleoclimate records, and modeling results.
Progress Made Since 9/11 Protecting the United States from terrorism is the founding mission of the Department of Homeland Security. While America is stronger and more resilient as a result of a strengthened homeland security enterprise, threats from terrorism persist and continue to evolve. Global Transportation -Review of Challenges and Best Practices 1. Sept Global Transportation - Review of Challenges and Best Practices 1 Pradeep Kumar Tiwari, 2Prashant Trivedi 1,2 DAMS, Kanpur, UP, India Abstract beyond manufacturing that included transportation, customs With the Globalization gaining more prominence, both sourcing. Supply Chain Security is here to stay. The attacks forever changed the way international supply chains need to function. Security has become an increasingly important factor and non-compliance with security regimes will continue to negatively impact performance and drive up total supply chain cost considerably in the years to come.
There are also many relevant and recent peer-reviewed publications describing changes in physical and chemical ocean properties that are underway due to climate change.
Both measurements and model results are continuing to sharpen the picture. A significant area of uncertainty remains with regard to the region-by-region impacts of warming, acidification, and associated changes in the oceans. Regional and local conditions mean that impacts will not be uniform around the U.
Forecasting of regional changes is still an area of very active research, though the overall patterns for some features are now clear. Current time series of biological productivity are restricted to a handful of sites around the globe and to a few decades, and global, comprehensive satellite time series of ocean color are even shorter, beginning in Changes in other physical and chemical properties such as ocean circulation, wave heights, oxygen minimums, and salinity are of medium confidence.
For ecosystem changes, there is high confidence that these are occurring and will persist and likely grow in the future, though the details of these changes are highly geographically variable.
Confidence Level Very High Strong evidence established theory, multiple sources, consistent results, well documented and accepted methods, etc. Direct measurements of ocean temperatures show warming beginning in about down to at least 2, feet, with stronger warming near the surface leading to increased thermal stratification or layering of the water column.
Warming and altered ocean circulation are also expected to reduce the supply of oxygen to deeper waters, leading to future expansion of sub-surface low-oxygen zones. These include rising sea level, 17 changes in upper ocean salinity including reduced salinity of Arctic surface waters resulting from altered inputs of freshwater and losses from evaporation, changes in wave height from changes in wind speed, and changes in oxygen content at various depths — changes that will affect marine ecosystems and human uses of the ocean in the coming years.
Trends during short periods of a decade or so can be dominated by natural variability. While this might temporarily slow the rate of increase in surface air temperature, ultimately it will prolong the effects of global warming because the oceans hold heat for longer than the atmosphere does.
Interactions with processes in the atmosphere and on land, such as rainfall patterns and runoff, also vary by region and are strongly influenced by natural climate fluctuations, resulting in additional local variation in the observed effects in the ocean. Marine ecosystems are also affected by other human-caused local and regional disturbances such as overfishing, coastal habitat loss, and pollution, and climate change impacts may exacerbate the effects of these other human factors.
Copy link to clipboard Key Message 2: Ocean Acidification Alters Marine Ecosystems The ocean currently absorbs about a quarter of human-caused carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere, leading to ocean acidification that will alter marine ecosystems in dramatic yet uncertain ways. Numerous references provide evidence for the increasing acidity lower pH of oceans around the world Ch.
Our Changing Climate, Key Message For these latter effects, available evidence is from laboratory studies in low pH conditions, rather than in situ observations. Such synergistic effects create complexities in predicting the outcome of the interplay of stressors on marine ecosystems.
Many, but not all, calcifying species are affected by increased acidity in laboratory studies. How those responses will cascade through ecosystems and food webs is still uncertain. Although studies are underway to expand understanding of ocean acidification on all aspects of organismal physiology, much remains to be learned.
Assessment of confidence based on evidence Confidence is very high that carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere are causing ocean acidification, and high that this will alter marine ecosystems.
The nature of those alterations is unclear, however, and predictions of most specific ecosystem changes have low confidence at present, but with medium confidence for coral reefs. Regional differences in ocean pH occur as a result of variability in regional or local conditions, such as upwelling that brings subsurface waters up to the surface.
On the left is a shell from a live pteropod from a region in the Southern Ocean where acidity is not too high.Since the 9/11, security for the transport of goods across borders has become a major component of the protection systems developed by the United States to avoid terrorist attacks.
Process for Developing Key Messages A central component of the assessment process was the Oceans and Marine Resources Climate assessment workshop that was held January , , at the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in Silver Spring, MD, and simultaneously, via web teleconference, at NOAA in Seattle, WA.
The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is a cabinet department of the United States federal government with responsibilities in public security, roughly comparable to the interior or home ministries of other countries.
Its stated missions involve anti-terrorism, border security, immigration and customs, cyber security, and disaster prevention and management. The changes in transportation security have caused some of the logistics operations to operate a little more slowly since 9/ The United States is one of the largest importing countries in the world and since 9/11 they have increased security levels in their country by way of custom clearance checks, cabotage laws, and duties.
Digital privacy has come a long way since June In the five years since documents provided by Edward Snowden became the basis for a series of revelations that tore away a veil of secrecy around broad surveillance programs run by the National Security Agency, there have been shifts in both technology and policy that have changed the center of gravity for personal electronic privacy in the.
Global Sourcing Creates Supply-Chain Challenges. Global sourcing creates challenges for retailers, says Paul Gaffney, executive VP of supply-chain management for office-supplies retailer Staples Inc. Staples has worked closely with manufacturers and transportation providers to avoid supply-chain delays, and delivery times have dropped.