The first of its kind since the Civil War, this bill drastically called for the end of all segregation in all public places. In the eyes of the civil rights movement leaders, this bill was long over due. Kennedy began by sending the United States Congress a "Special Message on Civil Rights," stating, "Our Constitution is color blind, but the practices of the country do not always conform to the principles of the Constitution. Equality before the law has not always meant equal treatment and opportunity.
Gandhi and Civil Disobedience Gandhi led the movement for independence in India by using non-violent civil disobedience. His tactics drove the British from India, but he failed to wipe out ancient Indian religious and caste hatreds.
Naturally shy and retiring, Mohandas K. Gandhi was a small, frail man with a high-pitched voice. He didn't seem like a person destined to lead millions of Indians in their battle for independence from the British Empire.
And the tactics that he insisted his followers use in this struggle—non-violent civil disobedience —seemed unlikely to drive a powerful empire from India. Gandhi was born into a Hindu merchant caste family in He was the youngest child.
His father was the chief minister of an Indian province and showed great skill in maneuvering between British and Indian leaders.
Growing up, Gandhi exhibited none of his father's interest in or skill at politics. Instead, he was heavily influenced by the Hinduism and Jainism of his devoutly religious mother.
She impressed on him beliefs in non-violence, vegetarianism, fasting for purification, and respect for all religions. InGandhi sailed for England where, following the advice of his father, he studied to become a lawyer.
When he returned to India three years later, he took a job representing an Indian ship-trading company that was involved in a complicated lawsuit in South Africa. Traveling to South Africa inGandhi soon discovered that the ruling white Boers, descendants of Dutch settlers, discriminated against the dark-skinned Indians who had been imported as laborers.
Gandhi himself experienced this discrimination when railroad officials ordered him to sit in a third-class coach at the back of a train even though he had purchased a first-class ticket. Gandhi refused the order and police forced him off the train. This event changed his life.
Gandhi soon became an outspoken critic of South Africa's discrimination policies.
This so angered the Boer population that at one point a white mob almost lynched him. At the turn of the century, the British fought the Boers over control of South Africa with its rich gold and diamond mines. Gandhi sympathized with the Boers, but sided with Britain because he then believed that the British Empire ";existed for the benefit of the world.
Inthe Boer legislature passed a law requiring that all Indians register with the police and be fingerprinted. Gandhi, along with many other Indians, refused to obey this law.
He was arrested and put in jail, the first of many times he would be imprisoned for disobeying what he believed to be unjust laws. Gandhi adopted the term "civil disobedience" to describe his strategy of non-violently refusing to cooperate with injustice, but he preferred the Sanskrit word satyagraha devotion to truth.
Following his release from jail, he continued to protest the registration law by supporting labor strikes and organizing a massive non-violent march. Finally, the Boer government agreed to a compromise that ended the most objectionable parts of the registration law.
Having spent more than 20 years in South Africa, Gandhi decided that his remaining life's work awaited him in India.
As he left South Africa inthe leader of the Boer government remarked, The saint has left our shores, I sincerely hope forever. He had abandoned his western clothing for the simple homespun dress of the poor people.
This was his way of announcing that the time had come for Indians to assert their independence from British domination. He preached to the Indian masses to spin and weave in lieu of buying British cloth. The British had controlled India since about the time of the American Revolution.
Gaining independence would be difficult, because Indians were far from united. Although most Indians were Hindus, a sizeable minority were Muslims. The relationship between the two groups was always uneasy and sometimes violent. One of Britain's main economic interests in India was to sell its manufactured cloth to the Indian people.
As Britain flooded India with cheap cotton textiles, the village hand-spinning and weaving economy in India was crippled. Millions of Indians were thrown out of work and into poverty.
Gandhi struggled throughout his life against what he considered three great evils afflicting India. One was British rule, which Gandhi believed impoverished the Indian people by destroying their village-based cloth-making industry."Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of is the single most important piece of legislation that has helped to shape and define employment law rights in this country (Bennett-Alexander & Hartman, )".
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Freedom Movement Bibliography. See also: Books Written by Freedom Movement Veterans.
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Throughout the Fall of and into early , SNCC and COFO organizers and volunteers continue to work with dedicated local activists to provide a Freedom Movement presence in Issaquena County.
The Civil Rights Act of Essay - Before the Civil Rights Act of , segregation in the United States was commonly practiced in many of the Southern and Border States. This segregation while supposed to be separate but equal, was hardly that.