How to Write a Summary of an Article? In the s, scientists began conducting test about the effect of social pressures and influence to the behavior of people.
Two cognitions or actions consistent with each other e. Two cognitions or actions unrelated to each other e. Two cognitions or actions inconsistent with each other e. The importance of cognitions: The greater the personal value of the elements, the greater the magnitude of the dissonance in the relation.
The proportion of dissonant-to-consonant elements. Reduction[ edit ] Cognitive dissonance theory proposes that people seek psychological consistency between their personal expectations of life and the existential reality of the world.
To function by that expectation of existential consistency, people continually reduce their cognitive dissonance in order to align their cognitions perceptions of the world with their actions. The creation and establishment of psychological consistency allows the person afflicted with cognitive dissonance to lessen his or her mental stress by actions that reduce the magnitude of the dissonance, realised either by changing with or by justifying against, or by being indifferent to the existential contradiction that is inducing the mental stress.
Change the behavior or the cognition "I'll eat no more of this doughnut. The bias that one does not have any biases, the bias that one is "better, kinder, smarter, more moral, and nicer than average," and confirmation bias.
A Longitudinal Analysis from the International Tobacco Control ITC Four Country Survey indicated that smokers use justification beliefs to reduce their cognitive dissonance about smoking tobacco and the negative consequences of smoking tobacco.
Continuing smokers Smoking and no attempt to quit since the previous round of study. Successful quitters Quit during the study and did not use tobacco from the time of the previous round of study. Failed quitters Quit during the study, but relapsed to smoking at the time of the study.
To reduce cognitive dissonance, the participant smokers adjusted their beliefs to correspond with their actions: Functional beliefs "Smoking calms me down when I am stressed or upset. Common to each paradigm of cognitive-dissonance theory is the tenet: People invested in a given perspective shall—when confronted with disconfirming evidence—expend great effort to justify retaining the challenged perspective.
Belief disconfirmation[ edit ] The disconfirmation contradiction of a belief, ideal, or system of values causes cognitive dissonance that can be resolved by changing the belief under contradiction; yet, instead of effecting change, the resultant mental stress restores psychological consonance to the person, by misperception, rejection, or refutation of the contradiction; seeking moral support from people who share the contradicted beliefs; or acting to persuade other people that the contradiction is unreal.
At the determined place and time, the cult assembled; they believed that only they would survive planetary destruction; yet the spaceship did not arrive to Earth.
The disconfirmed prophecy caused them acute cognitive-dissonance: Had they been victims of a hoax? Had they vainly donated away their material possessions? To resolve the dissonance, between apocalyptic, end-of-the-world religious beliefs and earthly, material realitymost of the cult restored their psychological consonance by choosing to hold a less mentally-stressful idea to explain the missed landing.It is important to take notice of theories, such as the balance theory, the congruency theory and the cognitive dissonance theory so that one's self-persuasion occurs knowingly.
As psychologist and theorist gain a better understanding of Festinger's cognitive dissonance theory manipulation could occur more easily than it already does .
Essay about Understanding the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance; Essay about Understanding the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.
Event-Cognitive Theory Essay. Event-Cognitive Theory is an integrative theory taking specific elements of external influential theories, which function on the hypothesis that cognitions are a product of events in a.
“Cognitive dissonance is a theory of human motivation that asserts that it is psychologically uncomfortable to hold contradictory cognitions.
The theory is that dissonance, being unpleasant, motivates a person . Cognitive dissonance is so unpleasant that individuals would often rather be close-minded than be informed and deal with the repercussions of cognitive dissonance.
Dennis Sandole talks about the importance of understanding the paradigms of the people involved in the conflict. Essay about Understanding the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance; Essay about Understanding the Theory of Cognitive Dissonance.
Event-Cognitive Theory Essay. Event-Cognitive Theory is an integrative theory taking specific elements of external influential theories, which function on the hypothesis that cognitions are a product of .
Cognitive dissonance theory explained that humans would lie in order to avoid dissonance. It is the best explanation why religious cults and organizations do not cease to exist even though their prophecy and beliefs fails or contradicts reasoning.